What are Enzymes? What are Restriction Enzymes?
What are Enzymes? What are Restriction Enzymes?: Enzymes are a type of biological catalyst that increases the rate of biochemical reactions. Such organic substances of a protein nature that act as catalysts in living cells are called enzymes.
In 1897, Berzelius Buchner first discovered the enzyme zymase from yeast cells, and the term enzyme was first used by Kuhn.
All enzymes are made of proteins, some enzymes are made of RNA which are called ribozymes. Enzymes have many cleavages or sac-like structures called sites, where the reactants are attached to these sites.
Note:- All enzymes are proteins but not all proteins are enzymes.
Structurally, all enzymes are made up of proteins. Some enzymes are made entirely of proteins. Those are called simple enzymes. For example, pepsin, and urease enzyme, and this many enzymes are found in complex forms. Along with the component of proteins, non-proteins are also found in quantity. Such enzymes are called complex enzymes or holoenzymes.
What are Restriction Enzymes?
Restriction enzymes are endonucleases used by some archaea and bacteria to prevent or “restrict” the spread of viruses inside them. They are particularly common in bacteria and are part of their defense system against foreign DNA known as restriction/modification systems. These enzymes catalyze the cutting, reproduction, and processing of repetitive DNA at specific locations without the use of additional energy.
where are these enzymes found?
Restriction enzymes are found in many different strains of bacteria where their biological role is to participate in cell defense. These enzymes “restrict” foreign (e-viral) DNA from entering the cell. More than 800 known enzymes have been discovered that recognize more than 100 different nucleotide sequences.
Restriction enzymes are used in biotechnology to cut DNA into smaller fragments to study fragment length differences in individuals. This restriction is known as fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). They are also used for gene cloning.
RFLP techniques have been used to determine whether individuals or groups of individuals have specific differences in gene sequence and restriction cleavage patterns in certain regions of the genome. Knowledge of these unique regions is the basis of DNA fingerprinting. Each of these methods relies on the use of agarose gel electrophoresis for the separation of DNA fragments. TBE buffer, which is composed of Tris base, boric acid, and EDTA, is commonly used for agarose gel electrophoresis to probe DNA products.
What is the difference between Enzymes and Hormones?
- An enzyme is a catalyst that increases the rate of reaction in the body whereas hormones are chemical messengers that provide signals to the cell to perform various functions.
- Enzymes act at the site where they are produced while hormones act away from the cell where they are produced and travel through body fluids.
- Diseases due to the dysfunction of enzymes are less likely to occur, but hormonal dysfunctions can lead to life-long diseases; They are the main reason for the growth and development of the body.
- Enzymes are catalysts, which drive biochemical reactions while hormones are chemical messengers that provide signals to the cell to perform a particular function.
- Enzymes perform their action at the site(s) where they are produced. Whereas hormones exert their action at different places from where they are produced and carried by the blood.
- Enzymes are produced in exocrine glands. Whereas hormones are produced in the endocrine glands.
- Enzymes participate in metabolism whereas hormones control metabolic activity by signaling the cell to perform various body functions.