what are the communicable diseases
Following are the various communicable diseases.
Here are we to tell you about what are communicable diseases and the various communicable diseases.
Typhoid is caused by a bacillus. These bacilli enter into the body of healthy individuals through the air, water, and food. But its main source is usually impure or dirty water. Cases of typhoid are found in every part of the world.
Incubation Period- Its Incubation Period is 1-30 days.
Symptoms- The temperature of the body increases gradually. Generally, it varies from 1060F but in the morning the temperature remains approximately 990F. Small rashes can be seen on the belly after 10—15 days of fever, The patient feels Bacillus of Typhoid
headache. There is a loss of appetite. Bodyweight becomes less. There is a complaint of stiffness in the patient. After 25 days the body temperature slump below normal.
Prevention and Control–
- Do not drink contaminated water.
- To prevent this disease vaccination is a must.
- The excreta and other wastes of the patient should be dumped.
- The patient should be prevented from houseflies.
- The clothes of the patient should be cleaned in boiled water.
- The patient should have complete rest.
- In case of high fever, cold water packs should be placed on the forehead of the patient.
The use of an ice bag is also appropriate.
- The liquid diet should be given to the patient.
- Information should be sent to the health department immediately.
- The patient should be segregated from other members of the family.
- The utensils of the patient should not be used by other family members.
- In case of high fever, Aspirin may be given to the patient.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease. In India, a lot of people fall prey to this disease. It can be prevented and cured. This disease is common in men. in comparison to women. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Robert Koch identified it in 1882, Bacillus can
creep into the body through various means.
Incubation Period– The incubation period may be a week, a month, or a year.
Mode of Transmission– The infected sputum of a patient comes out and dries up then the germs of tuberculosis are scattered in the air. When a patient coughs or sneezes, the bacilli come out and mix in the air. When a normal person inhales that air the bacilli also enter his lungs. By taking infected meat or milk, bacilli may also enter the body of a healthy person.
- Persistent cough with or without blood
- High fever
- Pain in the chest and throat
- Fast breathing and pulse rate Blood with sputum in Advanced case
- Loss of appetite and loss of weight
- Sweating at night, chills.
Prevention and Treatment–
- BCG vaccination should be given to a child from birth to six weeks.
- The children should avoid playing in dusty areas.
- Rooms should be hygienic and properly ventilated.
- A balanced diet should be taken.
- The patient should take medicine at least for 1 to 11/4 years. Usually, patients incomplete treatment because they start feeling better after three months. . usually leave the medicine and are not cured completely.
- The infected person should not indulge in hard work.
- The patient should go out for morning and evening walks regularly.
- The patient should be saved from ultraviolet rays.
- Completely boiled milk should be taken.
Cholera is a fatal communicable disease. Its germs are called “Vibro-cholera”. Generally, these prey to this disease he should be given treatment immediately. If treatment is not given to the patient immediately, he/she may die soon.
Mode of Transmission– Millions of germs of this disease develop in the excreta of an individual. In this way, these germs are mixed In water and soil and finally, these germs pollute the drinking water. Houseflies also spread the germs of this disease and pollute the food. In this way, the germs of this disease enter the body of healthy individuals through food and water.
Incubation Period- Its incubation period is from few hours to 5 days.
Symptoms– Vomiting and lose motions are common in this disease. Loose motions with pain. The patient feels thirsty. This disease leads to dehydration that may cause the death of the patient. Eyes and cheeks seem to sink inside. pue to weakness the patient may talk in a weak tone, Pulse rate becomes fast but weak. Nails turn black. The patient becomes so weak that sometimes he becomes unconscious.
Prevention and Treatment– The health department should be notified immediately, The remaining members of the family should be vaccinated at once. Fruits and vegetables.
should be washed with pure water prior to their use. The drains should be cleaned from time to time. The remaining food substances should not be thrown in an open area. Boiled water should be used for drinking. The patient should be taken to a well-qualified doctor for proper treatment.
Glucose in boiled water should be given to the patient after a certain interval. Vomiting and excreta of the patient should be dumped into the soil. The utensils of the patient should be kept separately. Rice water is also useful for the patient.
Rabies or hydrophobia is a fatal disease because the death of the patient is certain in such cases. It is caused by a virus. Maximum cases of human rabies result from dog bites, The virus rhabdo infects the nervous tissue and salivary glands. This virus develops within a duration of 4—6 weeks after the bite by a rabid animal. This disease is fairly common in India.
- Pain at the site of the bite.
- Difficulty in swallowing water/food.
- Fear of water.
- The patient cannot drink water although he is thirsty.
- Spasm of respiratory muscles.
- The patient shows illusion.
Prevention and Treatment–
- In case of an animal bite, notify immediately to the health department.
- A vaccination schedule of anti-rabies should be performed immediately.
- Pet dogs must be immunized against rabies.
- Avoid playing with stray dogs.
- Any animal suspected of having rabies, the municipality should be notified.
- The wound should be washed with running water immediately.
Tetanus is a dangerous disease. This disease spreads through soil because germs of tetanus are found in soil. When there is a cut on the body, germs from the soil enter the wound.
- Stiffness and pain in neck.
- Locking of jaws.
Prevention and Treatment–
- The wound and the skin around it should be washed with clean running water.
- After washing the wound, some disinfectant like Dettol should be applied immediately
- During childhood and pregnancy, vaccination is a must.
- Vaccination against tetanus is also essential after any cut on the body.
Polio is such type of disease, which causes paralysis to one side of the body or any part of it. That organ cannot do any work. Many people are paralyzed due to polio in India. This disease attacks the nervous system. This disease is caused by very minute viruses.
Mode of Transmission– The viruses of this disease enter the body of a healthy individual through liquids such as milk and water.
First of all, the individual gets a fever. He feels cold. He also gets a bad cold. The patient usually has a complaint of headache and vomiting. Rigidity is also felt in the back. The patient feels weakness. Intestines become weak. Muscles do not work properly.
- First of all, the information should be sent to the medical Polio officer of the nearest hospital.
- Vaccination is a must at regular intervals.
- Clothes and utensils should be kept separate and these things should be properly disinfected.
- The patient’s foodstuffs should be covered.
- Children should not put their hands in dirty water.
- The patient should be covered With a blanket.
- The patient should be kept isolated from other children of the family.
- Boiled water should be used for drinking.
- A well-qualified doctor should be consulted.