Reproductive System Male and Reproductive System Female: The process by which organisms increase their numbers is called reproduction. Reproduction is the main characteristic of organisms. The continuity of the species on this earth has been possible only because of reproduction. Thus, reproduction is the process by which an organism produces other fertile offspring like itself, and thus increasing its number and maintaining the existence of its species at par, saves it from extinction. The organs that take part in the reproduction of organisms and all the reproductive organs of an organism are collectively called the reproductive system. Let’s know about Reproductive System.
Human beings are unisexual, that is, the male and female sexes are found in different organisms. Organisms that produce only sperm are called males. Organisms from which only eggs are produced are called females.
Reproductive System Male and Reproductive System Female
Humans are viviparous i.e. they give birth directly to the baby. In humans, the reproductive organs usually become functional at the age of 12 to 13 years in females and 15 to 18 years in males. The reproductive organs also secrete certain hormones which bring about many changes in the body. Such changes are often reflected in the growth of hair on the thorax and genital organs in the female and by the growth of a beard and mustache in the male. Male and female reproductive organs are completely different in humans.
Male and female reproductive organs are completely different in humans.
Male Reproductive System
The organs that produce the germ cells and the organs that transport the germ cells to the place of fertilization are collectively called the male reproductive system. The following sex organs and other related structures are found in the male reproductive system of humans in the reproductive system-
1.testis and testicular fundus,
- spermatic cord,
- Urinary tract,
1.testis and testicular fundus
Testes are male reproductive glands that are elliptical. Their number is two. The testis is the primary reproductive organ found in males. The testes are located in a sac-like structure made of skin that hangs outside the body. This is called the scrotal sae.
Sperm are produced by the cells of the testis. The temperature required for sperm production is less than the body temperature. This is why the testes are located outside the abdominal cavity in the testicular sac. The sperm count in this ranges from 10 to 20 lakhs. The length of the sperm is 5 microns. It is divided into three parts – head, neck, and tail. Sperm live in the body for 30 days whereas after mating they live only for 72 hours in females. A type of fluid is filled in the testis, which is called seminal fluid.
Each segment of the testis is filled with seminiferous tubules. Groups of interstitial cells are found between the spermatic ducts which secrete the male reproductive hormone testosterone. This hormone helps in the development and control of secondary sexual characteristics. All the spermatogenic ducts join together to form the vas efferent. The spermatic ducts join together to form the epididymis duct. Sperm cells are produced in the testis itself by spermatogenic tubules. Sperm cells from the testis move to the epididymis where they are stored. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and to produce the male hormone testosterone.
It is a 6-meter-long convoluted tubule located behind each testis. It is well attached to the testis. One end of it remains attached to the testis and the other end extends beyond the epididymis to form the vas deferens. The epididymis serves as the main storage site for spermatozoa. Apart from this, the maturation of sperm also takes place in the epididymis. This is where the sperm get active.
3. spermatic cord
It is a thin tube whose walls are made of muscle. From the epididymis, spermatozoa reach the spermatic cord. The spermatic cord connects the epididymis with the seminal vesicle. They work to propel the sperm forward.
It is a pair of thin muscular walls. These are lobed formations. It is located above the prostate glands. The spermatozoa on both sides together form the ejaculatory duct. A kind of sticky substance is secreted from the scrotum.
It is connected by the urinary tract to the bladder. Its shape is like a round betel nut. Both prostate glands combine to form a common prostate gland. It consists of about two dozen ducts that open into the urethra. In the Reproductive System, a type of fluid is secreted from the prostate, which is called Prostate fluid. This fluid imparts a distinctive smell to the semen. The prostatic fluid mixes with the seminal fluid and reaches the urethra.
The penis is the sex organ of men. It is through the penis that the sperm reaches the female reproductive system. The urinary tract starts from the bladder and passes through the penis and opens in its upper part. The penis has an excessive blood supply. Along with this, its muscles are also of a special type. which gives it stiffness. The penis carries the semen out of the body and reaches inside the vagina of the female.
Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system consists of the following reproductive organs:
Each female has a pair of ovaries. They are located in the pelvic cavity in the lower part of the abdomen on both the right and left sides. Each ovary is an oval structure. Each ovary is about 4 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, and 1.5 cm thick. The ovary is adjoined to the abdomen by the peritoneum membrane. Eggs are produced by oogenesis inside the ovary. The outer layer of the ovary is made up of epithelium, which is called the germinal epithelium.
In the reproductive system, the inner part of the ovary is made up of fibers and connective tissue, which is called a stoma. The main function of the ovary is to produce the ovum. Two hormones estrogen and progesterone are secreted from the ovaries, which control menstruation.
The oviducts or fallopian tubes are two in number and are located on either side of the upper part of the uterus. Each fallopian tube is about 10 cm long. One end of this tube is attached to the uterus and the other end makes a finger-like fringe towards the ovary. This composition is called fimbria. When the egg leaves the ovary, it is captured by the fimbria. The egg then travels to the cavity of the fallopian duct. The egg reaches the uterus through the fallopian duct. The main function of the fallopian duct is to hold the egg through the fimbria and deliver it to the uterus.
It is a pear-like structure located in the pelvic cavity. It is generally 7.5 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 3.5 cm thick. From this, the oviduct opens on both sides i.e. at right and left angles. Its lower part is narrow which is called Cervix. The cervix further turns into the vagina. The lower opening of the uterus opens in this. In the Reproductive System, the wall of the uterus is muscular, within which there is an empty space. Inside the wall of the uterus is a cellular layer called the endometrium. The main function of the uterus is to provide proper space for the fertilized eggs to develop into the embryo.
In the Reproductive System in Hindi, it is similar to a tube in the vagina. It is about 7.5 cm long. It extends from the outer plane to the uterus. In front of it lies the bladder and below the rectum. The wall of the vagina is made up of muscular tissue. One end of the vagina opens out as the female genital opening and the other end remains attached to the cervix at the back. The opening outside the body of the vagina is called the vaginal opening.
Vulborithal glands are found in the wall of the vagina, from which a viscous fluid is released. This fluid lubricates the vagina during intercourse. A small pea-sized bulge is located above the entrance of the vagina and ureter, which is called the clitoris. This is a very stimulating organ, which when touched or comes in contact with the penis, the woman feels a lot of pleasure. During intercourse, semen comes out of the penis and falls into the vagina and the vagina delivers it to the uterus.
This is all about Reproductive System Male and Reproductive System Female.