Nucleotides, Nucleotides in RNA, and Nucleotides in DNA
Nucleotides, Nucleotides in RNA, and Nucleotides in DNA: Nucleotides are the basic unit of nucleic acids that act as monomer units to form the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). They join with each other to form a polynucleotide chain, which provides structure to DNA or RNA. Nucleotides have three main components and They are a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar (a five-carbon sugar), and a phosphate group.
There are five different nitrogenous bases adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil. Thymine can only saw in DNA. There are two types of five-carbon sugars in nucleic acids. RNA contains ribose sugar while DNA contains deoxyribose sugar.
They play a central role in metabolism at the fundamental, cellular level, and participate in cell signaling as well as important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (such as coenzyme A, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP).
Nucleotides in RNA
RNA nucleotide, also called ribonucleotide, is the monomer (building block) of RNA. The sugar component of a ribonucleotide is called ribose sugar and is one of four nitrogenous bases in ribonucleotides: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U). In RNA, adenine forms hydrogen bonds with uracil on the opposite side of DNA.
These ribonucleotides are reduced by enzymes to deoxyribonucleotides by ribonucleotide reductase. Simultaneously ribonucleotides can be converted into ATP, which is the energy currency of cells. Ribonucleotides can be synthesized anew, similar to deoxyribonucleotides.
Nucleotides in DNA
DNA nucleotide, also called deoxyribonucleotide, is the basic unit of DNA. DNA nucleotides are linked with each other through phosphodiester bonds and form polynucleotide sequences.
The five-carbon sugars in deoxyribonucleotides are deoxyribose. In addition, it contains four types of nitrogenous bases; Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T). It also contains a phosphate group attached to the pentose sugar.
De novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides requires an enzyme known as ribonucleotide reductase and deoxyribonucleotides can also be obtained from dietary sources. There are four types of deoxyribonucleotides ATP, CTP, GTP, and TTP. Furthermore, deoxyribonucleotides can be monophosphates, diphosphates, or triphosphates depending on the number of phosphate groups.
Difference Between DNA and RNA Nucleotides
- Deoxyribonucleotide is the building block of DNA that contains deoxyribose as its sugar component. Whereas, ribonucleotide is a monomer of RNA that has ribose as its sugar component.
- DNA nucleotides contain four types of nitrogenous bases adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T), while ribonucleotides contain adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C). ), and is. Uracil (U).