Communicable diseases are diseases that are caused by germs or worms or parasites.
Usually, these diseases are infectious and spread from a person suffering from the disease to a healthy person. Tuberculosis, malaria, smallpox, cholera, measles, etc., are communicable diseases.
Non-communicable diseases are diseases that are not caused by germs directly or
indirectly. In fact, such diseases are caused by the inefficiency of some internal organs or
by the deficiency of vitamins or minerals. Such diseases are caused by a lack of a balanced diet or the non-availability of a healthy environment. Eyes diseases, mental diseases, rickets, anemia, blood pressure, diabetes, postural defects, and diseases of teeth, etc., are the main examples of non-communicable diseases.
MODES OF TRANSMISSION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
There are various modes of transmission of communicable diseases. These are described
- Through Air– Air is a very vital carrier of communicable diseases. When an individual breathes out, coughs, or sneezes, he/she sprays out certainly infected droplets in the air. These infected droplets enter the body of a healthy person when he breathes in the fresh air, so he is also infected. Sometimes, while breathing, we inhale some dust particles that are infected. Influenza, cough, cold, tuberculosis. smallpox and measles, etc., are such communicable diseases that are usually spread through the air.
- Through Direct Contact– Direct, contact, is also an important mode of transmission of communicable diseases. Body contact, shaking hands, etc.
- Through Indirect Contact– Not only the direct contact of the infected person communicable disease but even a healthy individual catches the communicable disease when he/she comes in contact with the clothes, books, handkerchief, like a chair, and table, stationery of a person suffering from a communicable disease Smallpox, scabies, scarlet fever, eczema, ringworm, etc., are spread through contact.
- Through Food and Drinks– Communicable diseases also spread through food and drinks. When a healthy person takes food that had come in contact with the person suffering from infectious disease, germs enter his/her body and he/she falls ill. The germs of tuberculosis, which are present in the milk, cause tuberculosis. Flies also sit on the food and spoil it. Flies usually sit on the sputum of a patient and also sit on the food. So, it can be said that flies infect food. Most of the diseases, that are caused by infected food and drinks are cholera, diphtheria, dysentery, enteric fever, scarlet fever, typhoid, and tuberculosis, etc.
- Through Insects– There are some insects, which are the main carriers of germs. Mosquitoes, bugs, lice suck the blood of a patient, the germs stick to their trunks or strings and when the same insect bites a healthy person, the germs are left in his/her body and thus these germs infect the body. Some of the diseases, which are caused by small living creatures are yellow fever, enteric fever, cholera, diarrhea, plague, malaria, and typhoid, etc.
- Through Skin– There may be some cuts on the skin from spade, blade, knife. Certain germs may enter into cuts and may cause diseases like anthrax and tetanus.
- By Parents– Some communicable diseases like tuberculosis and diabetes are by parents if the parents are having the germs of such diseases. These diseasesaß inherited in the offspring through the genes of parents.
- Through Dirty Hands– Dirty hands may also cause infectious diseases. Poliomyelitisand dysentery is diseases that spread through dirty hands. Some children do not clean their hands properly which are infected by germs of such diseases. These germs may enter Their bodies with food and hence they fall ill.
- Through Disease Carriers– Some persons carry germs of diseases even then they
do not fall ill but usually pass their germs to other healthy persons. These healthy
persons may fall ill. The persons, who pass these germs to others, are called carriers.
They have immunity against such diseases. Typhoid may be spread through carriers.