Metals and Non-Metals Physical and Chemical Properties

Metals and Non-Metals for class 10

Metals and Non-Metals Physical and Chemical Properties

Metals and Non-Metals Physical and Chemical Properties: Elements that gain cations by giving up electrons are called metals. In the modern periodic table, all metals are placed in the middle and on the left. Elements that are on the far side of the periodic table have the most properties of metals. In ancient times only eight metals were known, but at present, the total number of known metals is 90.

Metals are those elements which:

  • Metals are good conductors of electricity and heat.
  • They can be pull in the form of wire, this property calls Metal ductivity.
  • They have a special type of luster which calls metallic luster.
  • Metals have a tendency to form cations.

Example – Copper, Iron, Mercury, Gold, Silver, Sodium, etc.

Non-metals are elements which:

  • Which are generally bad conductor of electricity and heat.
  • it is not ductile.
  • Non-metals do not have any lustur.
  • They generally tend to form negative ions.

Example – Sulphur, Bromine, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon, Chlorine, etc.

Chemical Properties of Metals

Electron Configuration – Metals usually have 1 to 3 electrons in the outermost shell of their atom.
For example, sodium, magnesium, and aluminum have 1, 2, and 3 valence electrons.

Valency – Metal atoms can lose 1 to 3 electrons in their outermost shell and show valence 1 to 3.

Electrochemical nature – Metal atoms have a tendency to lose electrons and form cations.

Electronegativity – Metals generally have low electronegativity i.e. tendency to attract electrons to the position of the molecule.

Reducing Agent – All metals act as reducing agents.

Uses of Metal

(a) Iron being non-destructible and hard, it uses in making ships, airplanes, railway coaches, railway tracks, garters of bridges, etc.
(b) Metals like aluminum and copper uses in making electric wires. Because metals are ductile and good conductors of electricity.
(c) Metals like aluminum and copper uses in making utensils for cooking. Because metals are non-metallic and good conductors of heat.
(d) Gold and silver use in making ornaments because of their lustrous, non-metallic and ductile.

Physical Properties of Non-Metals

  • Non-metals have high ionization energies.
  • They have high electronegativity.
  • Non-metals are insulators which means they are useless conductors of electricity.
  • They are dull, they don’t have the luster like metals.
  • They acquire electrons easily.
  • Non-metals can be solid, liquid, or even gaseous.

Uses of Non-Metals

(a) Non-metals are essential elements for life. Oxygen, which is a non-metal, inhale by living organisms. Animals cannot survive without oxygen.
(b) Non-metals such as nitrogen use in making manure. Manure uses to increase the fertility of the fields.
(c) Non-metals such as carbon are uses in the purification of water.
(d) A solution of iodine, which is a non-metal, use as an antibiotic to apply on cuts, scrapes, and wounds.