Metals and Non-Metals for class 10

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Metals and Non-Metals for class 10

Metals and Non-Metals for class 10

Metals and Non-Metals for class 10: All the matter on earth is made up of elements. Elements can be divide into two parts on the basis of their properties- metals and non-metals.

Metals

They often call those elements which have the tendency to become cations by giving up one or more electrons from their atoms during normal chemical reactions, which are call metals.
Metals are also calling the power element. Like iron, gold, silver, etc.

Non-Metals

They are those which tend to form anion by taking one or more electrons during chemical reactions. Non-metals are also calling negative electronegative elements.
Like iodine bromine carbon-sulfur etc.

Out of the total 118 elements in the periodic table, 91 elements are metals while 27 elements are non-metals.

They give on the left side of the periodic table and non-metals are given on the right side of the periodic table.

Semi metal or metalloid

Elements whose properties are similar to those of metals and those of non-metals are call metalloids.
Example- Boron-B, Silicon-Si, Germanium-Ge, Asdic-As, and Timony-Sb, Tellurium-Te,
Polodynium-Po

Metals and Non-Metals Properties

Metals

  1. The metal reacts with air to form a metallic oxide which is alkaline in nature.

Metal + Oxygen → Metallic Oxygen
2Cu+O₂→2CuO
4Al+3O₂→2Al₂O₃

2, They are usually solid. The exception is mercury found in the liquid state.

  1. The metal has a special kind of luster.
  2. They react with chlorine to form electrovalent bonds

Reactive Oxides

Some metal oxides are such that react with both acids and bases to react with salts.
And they give water. Such oxides call reactive oxides.

Example – ZnO, Al₂O₃
Al₂O₃+6HCl→2AlCl₃+3H₂O
Al₂O₃+2NaOH→2NaAlO₂+H₂O

Non-Metals

  1. It takes electrons to form anion and acts as an oxidising agent during a chemical reaction.
  2. Non-metals form anions by accepting electrons. and act as an oxidizer during a chemical reaction
  3. Oxides of non-metals are acidic and do not react with acids.
  4. Nonmetals react with chlorine to form covalent bonds.

Uses

  • They are strong non-malleable and ductile so that they are use to make utensils, tools, large structures, etc.
  • Blue cloth, whose chemical name is copper sulfate, is use in electric batteries and electroplating.
  • Silver bromide is use in photography
  • Sodium carbonate is use to soften water
  • Nitrogen is use for refrigeration and it is also use to make urea.
  • Hydrogen is use as rocket fuel, it is also use in the production of vegetable ghee.

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