Metals and Non-Metals for class 10
Metals and Non-Metals for class 10: All the matter on earth is made up of elements. Elements can be divided into two parts on the basis of their properties- metals, and non-metals.
They often call those elements which have the tendency to become cations by giving up one or more electrons from their atoms during normal chemical reactions, which are called metals.
Metals are also called the power element. Like iron, gold, silver, etc.
They are those which tend to form anions by taking one or more electrons during chemical reactions. Non-metals are also called negative electronegative elements.
Like iodine bromine carbon-sulfur etc.
Out of the total 118 elements in the periodic table, 91 elements are metals while 27 elements are non-metals.
They give on the left side of the periodic table and non-metals are given on the right side of the periodic table.
Semi-metal or metalloid
Elements whose properties are similar to those of metals and those of non-metals are called metalloids.
Examples- Boron-B, Silicon-Si, Germanium-Ge, Asdic-As, and Timony-Sb, Tellurium-Te,
Metals and Non-Metals Properties
- The metal reacts with air to form a metallic oxide which is alkaline in nature.
Metal + Oxygen → Metallic Oxygen
2, They are usually solid. The exception is mercury found in the liquid state.
- The metal has a special kind of luster.
- They react with chlorine to form electrovalent bonds
Some metal oxides are such that react with both acids and bases to react with salts.
And they give water. Such oxides call reactive oxides.
Example – ZnO, Al₂O₃
- It takes electrons to form an anion and acts as an oxidizing agent during a chemical reaction.
- Non-metals form anions by accepting electrons. and act as an oxidizer during a chemical reaction
- Oxides of non-metals are acidic and do not react with acids.
- Nonmetals react with chlorine to form covalent bonds.
- They are strong non-malleable and ductile so they are used to make utensils, tools, large structures, etc.
- Blue cloth, whose chemical name is copper sulfate, is used in electric batteries and electroplating.
- Silver bromide is used in photography
- Sodium carbonate is used to soften water
- Nitrogen is used for refrigeration and it is also used to make urea.
- Hydrogen is used as rocket fuel, it is also used in the production of vegetable ghee.