Ecosystem: Ecology is a branch of biology. Under which the inter-relationship of organisms with each other and their environment are studied. Eugene Odum is called the father of ecology.


The interaction of biotic and abiotic components of nature is called an ecosystem.

Ecosystem definition

An ecosystem is a group formed by a certain place and all the living beings living in it. For this reason, we can say that they are formed from the physical environment and the organisms found in them. Those that exist between communities of living organisms and the environment in which they live (habitat or biotope). An ecosystem can vary greatly in its size, from a small pond to a dense forest or deep ocean. Whereas ponds, lakes, wetlands, rivers, and estuaries are included in the ‘aquatic ecosystem’.


Arthur G. Tansley first used the term ecosystem. An ecosystem is a system that is formed by the interaction of living and non-living components of the environment.

According to Eugene Odom – “Ecosystem is the basic unit of nature. In which both biotic and abiotic components of the environment affect each other.

Components of Ecosystem:-

  1. Biotic Component

Living elements are included under the biological component. These biological components are divided into two parts.

Autotrophic Component

Green trees and plants have been included under these. These trees and plants make food by doing the process of photosynthesis in sunlight. It is through them that we get food, shelter, and oxygen. These components are called producers.

Heterotrophic Component

These biotic components of the ecosystem cannot make their own food. They depend on autotrophic components for their food. The heterotrophic component is called the consumer.

2. Abiotic Component

Non-living elements found in the environment are called abiotic components of the ecosystem.

Inorganic Material – Carbon, Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Water, etc.

● Organic – Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, etc.

● Climatic Factors – Light, temperature, wind, humidity, etc.

Characteristics of Ecosystem

  1. The ecosystem of a certain unit of space represents the sum total of all the living organisms of that area and its physical environment.

2. The ecosystem is the basic unit of ecology.

3. The ecosystem is observed in terms of time unit i.e. ecosystem has a time dimension as well.

4. Organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other

5. The base of an ecosystem can be small as well as large.

ecosystem functions

To understand the functioning of the ecosystem, it is necessary to have knowledge of its structure. Any ecosystem performs its work according to natural conditions. Under this, we study such things as how much light green plants receive in a year, how much green plants are eaten by herbivores, and how many are eaten by herbivores and carnivores. Structurally and functionally, the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem are so closely related that it is very difficult to separate them. Green plants stabilize the sun’s radiation energy and form complex organic substances with the help of mineral elements found in the soil or with elements found in the atmosphere.