Cell division: cell division by mitosis and cell division by meiosis

Cell division: cell division by mitosis and cell division by meiosis

Cell division: cell division by mitosis and cell division by meiosis

Cell division: cell division by mitosis and cell division by meiosis: Cell division is a very important event in the life cycle of any cell. Cells reproduce their DNA by dividing. Cell division was first observed by Virchau in 1955 AD. Cell division occurs for many reasons such as replacing dead, damaged, or old cells so that the living organism can grow. The growth of organisms is not by increasing the size of the cell, but by the division of cells and the generation of more cells. Approximately two trillion cells divide daily in the human body.

The formation of new cells by dividing the old cell is called cell division. The cell that divides into cell division is called the parent cell. The parent cell divides into several daughter cells and this process is called the cell cycle.

How cells divide

Depending on the cell type, there are two ways of dividing cells — mitosis and meiosis. Each of these methods of cell division has special characteristics. The main difference in mitosis is that a cell divides into two cells that are similar to each other and have the same number of chromosomes. This type of cell division is good for basic development, repair, and maintenance. In meiosis, a cell divides into four cells with half the number of chromosomes. Reducing the number of chromosomes is important for sexual reproduction and provides genetic diversity.

There are three main types of cell division: —

  • Amitosis division
  • Mitosis division
  • Meiosis division

Amitosis division

Remak discovered the dis-division. This division occurs in underdeveloped cells such as bacteria, indigo green algae, yeast, amoebae, and protozoa. It first divides the nucleus of the cell and then divides the cytoplasm and eventually forms two new progenitor cells.

cell division by mitosis

Before the cell starts, it is in the “interface”. It seems that cells must divide continuously (remember that there are 2 trillion cell divisions in your body every day), but each cell actually spends most of its time at the interface. The interface is the period when a cell is getting ready to divide and start the cell cycle. During this time, cells are collecting nutrients and energy. The parent cell is copying its DNA to be shared equally between the two daughter cells.

The mitosis division process has multiple steps or stages of cell cycle — interfaces, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis — to successfully create new diploid cells.

When a cell divides during mitosis, some organs are divided between two daughter cells. For example, mitochondria are able to grow and divide during interphase, so daughter cells each have sufficient mitochondria. The Golgi apparatus, however, breaks down before mitosis and reassembles into each of the new daughter cells.

cell division by meiosis

Meiosis is the second main way of dividing cells. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, such as female egg cells or male sperm cells. What is important to remember about meiosis? In meiosis, each new cell has a unique set of genetic information. After meiosis, sperm and egg cells can join to form a new organism.

Meiosis is the reason why all our sexually reproducing organisms have genetic diversity. During meiosis, a small portion of each chromosome breaks down and reaches the other chromosome. This process is called “crossing over” or “genetic recombination”. Genetic recombination is the reason that full siblings made of egg and sperm cells may look very different from each other.

The end result has four daughter cells called haploid cells. The Haploid cells have only one set of chromosomes – half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

Before meiosis begins, the cell moves through the interface. Like mitosis, the root cell uses this time to prepare for cell division by collecting nutrients and energy and making a copy of its DNA. During the next stages of meiosis, this DNA will be switched around during genetic recombination and then split between four haploid cells.



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